Bioremediation is defined as the use of biological processes to degrade, break down, transform or essentially remove pollutants or contaminants of the natural environments such as soil, water etc Bioremediation is brought about by the action of microorganisms suc as bacteria, fungi etc. Bioremediation can also be brought about by plants. Microorganisms are capable of using these pollutants as source of carbon and energy. Microorganisms are capable of degradation of complex (toxic) pollutants to simple (nontoxic) forms. This paper summmarises the processes of bioremediation of soils by microorganisms and their role in the abatement of soil pollution. The effect of soil conditions on the rate of biodegradation is also addressed.