The present study determines the morphological spore’s diversity and the agronomic potential of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from cowpea rhizosphere in the Adamawa region of Cameroon. There for, soils samples were collected in nine sites, distributed in three Divisions. Then, soils from each Division were mixed for a single composite soil sample. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus spores were trapped in pots on these soils using three host plants, cowpea, soybean and maize. Maize and soybean rhizosphere spores were characterized by Tobolbaï et al. (2018) and Richard et al. (2021) respectively. At plants maturity, after the evaluation of mycorrhization, the spores of cowpea rhizosphere were isolated and characterized. Four different treatments were formulated from the spores collection obtained from each host plant rhizosphere: T1 for spores from soybean, T2 for spores from cowpea, T3 for spores from maize, T4 for the mixture of the three treatments and one negative control T0. The agronomic performances of these treatments were tested in field conditions on cowpea plants in Dang locality. Results analysis showed that the rate and degree of mycorrhization varied between 11.66-53% and 27.77-48.66%, respectively; soils spore charge and diversity fluctuate between 145-285% and 3-5%, respectively. Improvements in growth and yield parameters are better with T2 and T3 treatments and weaker with T1 and T4. The data obtained vary from 50.55-63 cm for the size, 36.57-52.37g for the dry biomass, 17-30 for the number of pods, 165-205 for the number of seeds, 30.88-35.22g for the weight of seeds per plant and 165-204 kg for the theoretical yield per hectare. T2 and T3 treatments are therefore recommended for sustainable cowpea production in this part of Cameroon.