Food is essential for nourishment and sustenance of life, therefore food safety is a basic human right. But many times, the food that you eat to stay healthy can make you sick. Billions of people in the world are at risk of unsafe food. Many millions become sick while hundreds of thousand die yearly. The food chain starts from farm to fork, however challenges include microbial, chemical, personal and environmental hygiene. Earlier incidents of food quality and food safety were mainly chemical contaminants. More recent outbreaks have been due to microbial agents. To ensure food safety and to prevent foodborne illness, rapid and accurate detection of pathogenic agent is essential. Culture-based tests are being substituted by faster and sensitive culture independent Diagnostics including antigen-based assays and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) panels. Innovative technology such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) coupled with nanoparticles can detect multiple target microbial pathogens DNA or proteins using nucleic acids, antibodies and other biomarkers assays analysis. The food producers, distributers, handlers and vendors bear primary responsibility while consumers must remain vigilant and literate. Government agencies must enforce food safety laws to safeguard public and individual health. The intimate collaboration between all stakeholders will ultimate ensure food safety in 21st century.