Immunochromatographic detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 antigens among patients with diarrhoea in hospitals in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
Ocheme Julius Okojokwu, Peace Nkiruka Okeke, Bashiru Shafa Abubakar, Entonu Elijah Entonu, Ibrahim Abubakar Yusuf, Francis Ofuowoicho Ukah, Innocent A Onaji,
Two serogroups of Vibrio cholerae, O1 and O139 are recognized for explosive outbreaks of severe diarhoea and have an inclination to causing pandemics with 60% of all cases occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Screening for cholera is seldomly carried out in cases of acute watery diarrhoea in hospitals. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 and the associated risk factors among patients presenting with diarrhoea in some hospitals in Jos, Nigeria. Methods: Immunochromatographic assay was used to detect these antigens among patients presenting with diarrheoa in selected hospitals. Results: Two cases of Vibrio cholerae O1 infection (2.0%) and no case of Vibrio cholerae O139 was recorded from this study. The cases of Vibrio cholerae O1 were observed among males and the age range for predisposition to infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 was non-specific to any age group. All the positive subjects were resident in urban slums. Risk factors such as source of water revealed that consumption of well water was associated with Vibrio cholerae O1 infection. There was no relation between type of toilet, hand washing, consumption of home cooked food, and symptoms of the infection. However, significant association existed between duration and frequency of diarrhoea with Vibrio cholerae O1 infection. Conclusion: Vibrio cholerae O1 is present in the studied population hence basic hygiene habits such as regular hand washing and proper disposal of human faecal waste should be emphasized to the public. Regular screening for these pathogens should be integrated into diarrhoeal disease control programs.